Traditional Italian Cooking

Listen to the story as you read along. Then, read the post and learn more about the origins of Carbonara and discuss other “traditional” cooking.

Paolo Campanella seems to think that American influence was responsible for the creation of Carbonara, but other Italian chefs think this explanation is the least likely among various origin stories. Food historian Jeremy Parzen, in Carbonara, a new theory for its origins and name, proposes that the name came from one of the ingredients that was added most recently to the dish: cured, smoked pork.

While I have no solid evidence of this, my philological intuition leads me to believe that the innovation of carbonara was the inclusion of cured pork.

To my knowledge, no gastronomer has made the connection between carbonara and carbonata, a term widely used in Renaissance Italy to denote a type of salt-cured and smoked pork.

While they are now considered Japanese dishes, there are many “traditional” foods that originated in other countries. Tempura came from Portugal, ramen probably came from China, and curry was introduced to Japan from India via British embassies in the Meiji Era. The spread of Japanese food has been undergoing a boom in the last couple of decades, spurred in part by the popularity of shows like Iron Chef, though many transformed items like California rolls might be served alongside more traditional forms.

広告
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Attitudes Toward Sleep

Here is the audio file for Attitudes Toward Sleep.

How much do you sleep? Most teenagers do not get enough sleep. Someone in his or her teens actually needs more sleep than a slightly younger child because teenagers’ brains and bodies are changing more dramatically than any time other than early childhood (infant to age 3 or 4). Current recommendations are that teenagers get at least 8.5 hours, and preferably up to 10 hours of sleep per night.

Lack of sleep can have negative effects on concentration, metabolism, mood, and ability to cope with stress. Sleep deprivation also causes errors in judgement and delays in reaction time comparable to alcohol intoxication.

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An Incredible Survivor

Here is the sound file for the story.

What are some other animals that can survive in extreme conditions?

Probably the toughest one is the tardigrade, which is one of the oldest kinds of creatures that is still around.

You can also read more about animals that survive in very cold conditions on this page, which continues here. The second page has a section about the wood frog near the top.

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Fewer Rules, More Safety

Here is the link to the sound file.

What are some traffic problems in your area? Do you think that eliminating traffic lights would improve the situation, or make it worse?

You can write your comments below.

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アメリカの蝉

竜巻があったと思ったら…大雪が降る…
アメリカの天候は不安定のようです。

「何かあったら日本へ来いよ!」とアメリカ人のハーレー仲間に連絡したら

My dream is to visit you and meet the rest of your family and see the treasures of Japan.
I just can’t figure out how to get the motor home and motorcycles there!
Maybe when the oceans freeze I can drive there.

「キャンピングバスに乗って来たい!」とジョークで返されました。

アメリカは今年はセミの当たり年です。
知っていますか?
アメリカには13年型と17年型のセミがいるんです。
これは、13間地面の中にいるとの17年のとがいるってことですよ~。
日本のアブラゼミが6年なので…随分と長い生きをする昆虫ですよね。
地面の中でそんなに長い間…何をしているのでしょう?
不思議ですね。

それでは、なぜ13年と17年なんでしょう?

13と17 

この数字を見て閃きませんか?

そう!素数なんですね。

たとえば、3の倍数や2の倍数だと、
ライバルと地上に出て時にバッティングしちゃうわけです。
17年も土の中にいて…地上で…いきなり闘わなきゃいけないんですよ。

よっぽどやだったんでしょうね~。
かち合わないように13年とか17年とか素数を選んだってわけです。

あるいは…

221年に1回だけ…両者は交配してハイブリットな蝉ができるのかも?

自然って…圧倒的にスゴイですね。

考えてみると…みんなと同じ年の蝉なんですね(笑)

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The Counting Horse

The Counting Horse, sound file.

The case of Clever Hans was so influential that Pfungst’s finding came to be called the Clever Hans effect. Further research showed that nearly everyone will display some signals, even if they are actively trying not to do so.

The observer effect can change the outcome of some studies so badly that preventing problems led to the creation of of double-blind tests. In a double-blind test, neither the subjects or the people running the experiment know what idea they are researching. Only the researcher — who is not involved with the subjects — knows the real reason behind the experiment.

Some experiments go even further, and use a triple-blind design. The subjects don’t know what is being researched, the people running the experiment don’t know either, and the researcher interpreting the collected information also is not informed about the real object of the study. This is to prevent bias* at every step in collecting, reporting, and analyzing the evidence. It is especially useful for avoiding “cherry picking” or confirmation bias.

*偏り、バイアス
確証バイアス

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A Successful Tribe

Listen to the audio for the story here.

Native American tribal lands are treated as separate legal areas from the rest of the state. The reason they are treated differently is, in part, to make up for the land European settlers took. Many Native Americans were forcibly moved out of their traditional territories. One notorious example of this policy of relocation was the Trail of Tears.

There are not very many Americans of European descent who have some “Indian” (Native American) blood. According to my family histories, I am related to two tribes: Iroquois and Cherokee, both a few generations back on my father’s side. My grandfather told me stories about what happened to some of his relatives. My parts of the family were already integrated — living among the white and mixed-blood communities in the eastern United States — when that happened, but they lost some relatives to the march west.

This was around the same time as when slavery was reaching its peak. Americans are not proud of that period in our history.

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